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Fish Passage Resource Library

We have a vast collection fish passage related resources and documents. You will need Adobe Reader to view the PDFs

 

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All Publications

Aaserude, R. G. and J. F. Orsborn. August 1985. New concepts in fishladder design. Part 2: Results of laboratory and field research on new concepts in weir and pool fishways. Final Project Report, part 2 of 4 of Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory, University of Washington to Bonneville Power Administration, Project no. 82-14, Portland, Oregon.

Abt, S. R., R. J. Wittler, J.F.Ruff, D. L. LaGrone, M. S. Khattak, J.D.Nelson, N. E. Hinkle, and D. W. Lee. 1988. Development of Riprap Design Criteria by Riprap Testing in Flumes: Phase II Followup Investigations. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

ACOE. 1994. Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington D.C.

ACOE. 2002. SAM Hydraulic Design Package for Channels. Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Vicksburg, MS.

Adams, S. R., G. L. Adams, and G. R. Parsons. 2003. Critical swimming speed and behavior of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:392-397.

Adams, S. R., G. R. Parsons, J. J. Hoover, and K. J. Killgore. 1997. Note: Observations of swimming ability in shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12:631-633.

Adams, S. R., J. J. Hoover, and K. J. Killgore. 199 9. Swimming endurance of juvenile pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. Copeia 3:802-807.

Barber, M. E. and R. C. Downs. 1996. Investigation of culvert hydraulics related to juvenile fish passage. Research Report of Washington State Transportation Division, University of Washington to Washington State Transportation Commission and Federal Highway Administration, Project T9902, Task 7, Pullman, Washington.

Bates, K. 1991. Pool-and-Chute Fishways. American Fisheries Society Symposium 10:268-277.

Bates, K. 2001. Fishway Design Guidelines for Pacific Salmon.

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

Bathurst, J. C. 1987. Critical Conditions for Bed Material Movement in Steep, Boulder-Bed Streams. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 165:309-318.

Beamish, F. W. H. 1974. Swimming performance of adult sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in relation to weight and temperature. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 103:355-358.

Behlke, C. E., D. L. Kane, R. F. McLean, and M. D. Travis. 1993. Economic culvert design using fish swimming energy and power capabilities. Pages 95-100 in K. Bates, editor. Proceeding of a symposium on fish passage and technology. American Fisheries Society, Bioengineering Section, Portland, Oregon.

Belford, D. A. and W. R. Gould. 1989. An evaluation of trout passage through six highway culverts in Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:437-445.

Bell, M. 1991. Fisheries handbook of engineering requirements and biological criteria. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Pacific Division, Portland, Oregon.

Bergstedt, R. A., D. V. Rottiers, and N. R. Foster. 1981. Laboratory determination of maximum swimming speed of migrating sea lampreys: A feasibility study. Administrative Report No. 81-3. Report of U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Berry, Jr., C. R. and R. Pimentel. 1985. Swimming performances of three rare Colorado river fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114:397-402.

Bowman, D. 1977. Stepped-bed morphology in arid gravelly channels. Geologic Society of America Bulletin 88:291-298.

Bunt, C. M., C. Katopodis, and R. S. McKinley. 1999. Attraction and passage efficiency of white suckers and smallmouth bass by two Denil fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:793-803.

Bunte, K., and S. R. Abt. 2001. Sampling surface and subsurface particle-size distributions in wadable gravel- and cobble-bed streams for analyses in sediment transport, hydraulics, and streambed monitoring. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-74 2001. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins,CO.

CalTrans. 2006. California Highway Design Manual State of California Department of Transportation.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

Chin, A. 1998. On the Stability of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. Journal of Geology 106:231-234.

Chin, A. 2002. The Periodic Nature of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. American Journal of Science 302:144-167.

Clarkin, K., A. Connor, et al. (2005). National Inventory and Assessment Procedure For Identifying Barriers to Aquatic Organism Passage at Road-Stream Crossings. San Dimas, California, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Technology and Development Program.

Collins, G. B. and C. H. Elling. 1961. Fishway research at the Fisheries-Engineering Research Laboratory. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. Circular 98.

Collins, G. B., J. R. Gauley, and C. H. Elling. 1962. Ability of salmonids to ascend high fishways. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91:1-7.

Corry, M. L., P. L. Thompson, F. J. Watts, J. S. Jones, and D. L. Richards. 1983. Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels, Hydraulic Engineering Circular 14. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Dahlberg, M. L., D. L. Shumway, and P. Doudoroff. 1968. Influence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide on swimming performance of largemouth bass and coho salmon. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 25:49-70.

Davis, G. E., J. Foster, C. E. Warren, and P. Doudorff. 1963. The influence of oxygen concentration on the swimming performance of juvenile Pacific salmon at various temperatures. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 92:111-124.

Dorn, P., L. Johnson, and C. Darby. 1979. The swimming performance of nine species of common California inshore fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108:366-372.

Ead, S. A., C. Katopodis, G. J. Sikora, and N. Rajaratnam. 2004. Flow regimes and structure in pool and weir fishways. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 3(5):379-390.

Farlinger, S. and F. W. H. Beamish. 1977. Effects of time and velocity increments on the critical swimming speed of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106:436-439.

FHWA. 1979. Restoration of fish habitat in relocated streams, FHWA-IP-79-3. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1989. Design of Riprap Revetment: Hydraulic Engineering Circular. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

FHWA. 2001. Evaluating Scour at Bridges: Fourth Edition, HEC-18. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. & Arlington, VA.

FHWA. 2003. Bottomless Culvert Scour Study: Phase I Laboratory Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 2005. Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, Second Edition, Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 (HDS-5). U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C. & Arlington, VA.

FISRWG. 2001. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG).

Flagg, T. A., E. F. Prentice, and L. S. Smith. 1983. Swimming stamina and survival following direct seawater entry during parr-smolt transformation of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Aquaculture 32:383-396.

Fripp, J., C. Fischenich, and D. Biedenham. Circa 1998. Low Head Stone Weirs Draft, Technical Note EMSR 4-XX. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Gagen, C.J. and C. Landrum. 2000. Response of warm-water fish to road crossings on Ouachita Mountain streams. Interim report of the Fish and Wildlife Program, Arkansas Tech University to USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Gallegos, H. A., and S. R. Abt. 2001. Design criteria for rounded/angular rock riprap in overtopping flows. Proceedings FEMA Workshop, Oklahoma City, OK.

Gauley, J. R. 1966. Effect of water velocity on passage of salmonids in a transportation channel. Fishery Bulletin 66:59-62.

Gerking, S. D. 1953. Evidence for the concepts of home range and territory in stream fishes. Ecology 34:347-365.

Grant, G. E., F. J. Swanson, and M. G. Wolman. 1990. Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102(3):340-352.

Gregory, S., J. McEnroe, P. Klingeman, and J. Wyrick. 2004. Fish Passage Through Retrofitted Culverts. Oregon Department of Transportation; Federal Highway Administration, Salem, OR.

Hanson, L.H. 1980. 1980 study to determine the burst swimming speed of spawning-run sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). Research Completion Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hammond Bay Biological Station, Millersberg, Michigan.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, J. Noreika, and T. Castro-Santos. 1997. Effect of water acceleration on downstream migratory behavior and passage of Atlantic salmon smolts and juvenile American shad at surface bypasses. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:118-127.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, T. Castro-Santos, and J.Noreika. 1999. Effect of slope and headpond on passage of American shad and blueback herring through simple denil and deepened Alaska steeppass fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:51-58.

Haro, A., T. Castro-Santos, J. Noreika. and M. Odeh. 2004. Swimming performance of upstream migrating fishes in open-channel flow: a new approach to predicting passage through velocity barriers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:1590-1601.

Harrelson, C. C., C. L. Rawlins, and J. P. Potyondy. 1994. Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique. United States Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Hinch, S. G. and J. Bratty. 2000. Effects of swim speed and activity pattern on success of adult sockeye salmon migration through an area of difficult passage. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:598-606.

Inter-Fluve Inc. 2009. Culvert Scour Assessment. 0877-1812-SDTDC. US Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, 54 p.

Kahler, T. H., P. Roni, and T. P. Quinn. 2001. Summer movement and growth of juvenile anadromous salmonids in small western Washington streams. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58:1947-1956.

Katopodis, C., E. M. Koon, and L. Hanson. 1994. Sea lamprey barriers: new concepts and research needs. Report of an alternative control research workshop held in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 11-13 February, 1994. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Kondratieff, M. C. and C. A. Myrick. 2006. How high can brook trout jump? A laboratory evaluation of brook trout jumping performance. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:361-370.

Kozel, S. J., W. A. Hubert, and M. G. Parsons. 1989. Habitat features and trout abundance relative to gradient in some Wyoming streams. Northwest Science 63:175-181.

Lang, M. E. 2008. Influence of Fish Passage Retrofits on Culvert Hydraulic Capacity. California Department of Transportation.

Lang, M., M. Love, and W. Trush. 2004. Improving Stream Crossings for Fish Passage - Final Report. Humboldt State University and NOAA Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Laursen, E. M., and M. W. Flick. 1983. Final Report, Predicting Scour at Bridges: Questions Not Fully Answered – Scour at Sill Structures, Report ATTI-83-6. Arizona Department of Transportation.

Layher, W. G. Unpublished Report, 1993. Determining swimming speeds for darters of the genera Etheostoma and two cyprinid fishes. Final Report of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the Ouchita National Forest U.S.D.A. Forest Service and the University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished Report Swimming speeds of the central stoneroller. U.S. Geological Survey. University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. A comparison of swimming performance of orangebelly darters collected by kick-seining and backpack electrofishing. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Critical current speeds of several darter species of the genus Etheostoma. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Swimming performance of juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Swimming speed performance of the bigeye shiner from the Ouachita River drainage. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Swimming speed performance of the longear sunfish. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report, 1997. Differences between electrofished and seined golden shiners as related to swimming performance. U.S. Geological Survey. University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Lenzi, M. A., A. Marion, F. Comiti, and R. Gaudio. 2002. Local Scouring in low and high gradient streams at bed sills. Journal of Hydraulic Research 40(2002):731-739.

Limerinos, J. 1970. Determination Of Manning's Coefficient From Measured Bed Roughness, Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1898-B. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington D.C.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

MacLeod, J. C. and L. L. Smith, Jr. 1966. Effect of pulpwood fiber on oxygen consumption and swimming endurance of the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 95:71-84.

Maynord, S. T. 1994. Streams Above the Line: Channel Morphology and Flood Control. Proceedings of the Corps of Engineers Workshop on Steep Streams. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Seattle, Washington.

MDOT. 2004. Fish Passage Policy & Design Guide. Maine Department of Transportation.

Meng, L. 1993. Sustainable swimming speeds of striped bass larvae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:702-708.

Mesa, M. G. and T. M. Olson. 1993. Prolonged swimming performance of Northern Squawfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:1104-1110.

Mesa, M. G., J. M. Bayer, and J. G. Seelye. 2003. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:483-492.

Mesa, M. G., L. K. Weiland, and G. B. Zydlewski. 2004. Critical swimming speeds of wild bull trout. Northwest Science 78:59-65.

Montgomery, D. R., and J. M. Buffington. 1997. Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109:596-611.

Mooney, D. M., C. L. Holmquist-Johnson, and S. Broderick. 2007. Rock Ramp Design Guidelines. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

Moursund, R. A., D. D. Dauble, and M. D. Bleich. 2000. Effects of John Day Dam bypass screens and project operations of the behavior and survival of juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata). Final Report of Pacific Northwest Laboratory to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland, Oregon.

Moursund, R.A., M. D. Bleich, K. D. Ham, R.P. Mueller. 2003. Evaluation of the effects of extended length submersible bar screens on migrating juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentate) at John Day Dam in 2002. PNNL-14160. Final Report of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, District, Portland, Oregon.

Muir, B. S., G. J. Nelson, and K. W. Bridges. 1965. A method for measuring swimming speed in oxygen consumption studies on the aholehole Kuhlia sandvicensis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94:378-382.

Myrick, C. A. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 2000. Swimming performances of four California stream fishes: temperature effects. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58:289-295.

NOAA. 2001. Guidelines for salmonid passage at stream crossings. NOAA Fisheries, NMFS SW Region.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NRCS. 1996. National Engineering Field Handbook, Part 650, Chapter 16 - Streambank and Shoreline Protection U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NRCS. 2000. Design of Rock Weirs, Technical Notes Engineering No. 24. U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Portland, OR.

Oseid, D. and L. L. Smith, Jr. 1972. Swimming endurance and resistance to copper and malathion of Bluegills treated by long-term exposure to sublethal levels of hydrogen sulfide. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 101:620-625.

Osmer Ralston, A. and W. G. Layher. Unpublished report. An inexpensive ichthyonatometer for assessing swimming performance of small fishes. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Pauley, G. B., K. Oshima, K. L. Bowers, and G. L. Thomas. 1989. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Sea-run cutthroat trout. Biological Report 82(11.86) TR EL-82-4. Report of Washington Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, University of Washington to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center, Washington D.C.

Paulik, G. J. and A. C. DeLacy. 1957. Swimming abilities of upstream migrant silver salmon, sockeye salmon and steelhead at several water velocities. School of Fisheries, Technical Report 44, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Paulik, G. J., A. C. DeLacy, and E. F. Stacy. 1957. The effect of rest on the swimming performance of fatigued adult silver salmon. School of Fisheries, Technical Report 31, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Peake, S. 2004. An evaluation of the use of critical swimming speed for determination of culvert water velocity criteria for smallmouth bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133:1472-1479.

Peake, S., R. S. McKinley, D. A. Scruton, and R. Moccia. 1997c. Influence of transmitter attachment procedures on swimming performance of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:707-714.

Powers, P. D. 1997. Culvert Hydraulics Related to Upstream Juvenile Salmonid Passage. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, Lands and Restoration Services Program.

Powers, P. D., and J. F. Orsborn. 1985. Analysis of barriers to upstream fish migration, an investigation of the physical and biological conditions affecting fish passage success at culverts and waterfalls. Washington State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Albroook Hydraulics Lab, Pullman, WA.

Racin, J. A., T. P. Hoover, and C. M. Crossett Avila. 2000. California Bank and Shore Rock Slope Protection Design, Practitioner's Guide and Field Evaluations of Riprap Methods. California Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Sacramento, CA.

Rajaratnam, N., and C. Katopodis. 1990. Hydraulics of culvert fishways III: weir baffle culvert fishways. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 17(4):558-568.

Robinson, K. M., C. E. Rice, and K. C. Kadavy. 1998. Design of Rock Chutes. Transactions of the ASAE 41(3):621-626.

Ruttenberg, D. 2007. An Evaluation of Fish Passage at Rock Vortex Weirs. University of Idaho.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Shoemaker, R. H. 1956. Hydraulics of Box Culverts with Fish-Ladder Baffles. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting, Highway Research Board, Engineering Experiment Station, Report No. 53, Oregon State College, Corvallis, OR.

Slatick, E. 1970. Passage of adult salmon and trout through pipes. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Special Scientific Report-Fisheries 592.

Slatick, E. 1971. Passage of adult salmon and trout through an inclined pipe. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 3:448-455.

Smithson, E. B. and C. E. Johnston. 1999. Movement patterns of stream fishes in a Ouachita Highlands stream: an examination of the restricted movement paradigm. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:847-853.

Strange, R. J. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 1992. Reduced swimming performance of striped bass after confinement stress. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:206-210.

Taylor, R and M. Love. 2003. Fish Passage Evaluation at Stream Crossings. Part IX of California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 100 pages.

Thomas, A. E. and M. J. Donahoo. 1977. Differences in swimming performance among strains of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 34:304-307.

Thomas, D. B., S. R. Abt, R. A. Mussetter, and M. D. Harvey. 2000. A Design Procedure for Sizing Step-Pool Structures. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Tilsworth, T. and M. D. Travis. 1987. Fish passage through Poplar Grove Creek. Report Number FHWA-AK-RD-87-15. Final Report of Water Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska-Fairbanks to Research Section Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Toepfer, C. S., W. L. Fisher, and J. A. Haubelt. 1999. Swimming performance of the threatened Leopard Darter in relation to road culverts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:155-161.

USFS. 2005. WinXSPRO, A Channel Cross Section Analyzer, User's Manual, Version 3.0, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-147. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USFS. 2006b. Low-Water Crossings: Geomorphic, Biological, and Engineering Design Considerations. USDA United States Forest Service National Technology and Development Program.

USFWS. 2003. Geomorphic Impacts of Culvert Replacement and Removal: Avoiding Channel Incision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Portland, OR.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Villemonte, J. R. 1947. Submerged weir discharge studies. Engineering News Record:866.

Vincent, R. E. 1960. Some influences of domestication upon three stocks of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 89:35-52.

Ward, D. L., O. E. Maughan, S. A. Bonar, and W. J. Matter. 2002. Effects of temperature, fish length, and exercise on swimming performance of age-0 flannelmouth sucker. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:492-497.

Warren, Jr., M. L. and M. Pardew. 1998. Road crossings as barriers to small-stream fish movement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:637-644.

Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2003. Fish Passage Technical Assistance Design of Road Crossings for Fish Passage.

Weaver, C. R. 1965. Observations on the swimming ability of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94:382-385.

Weaver, C. R. 1963. Influence of water velocity upon orientation and performance of adult migrating salmonids. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Bulletin 63(1):97-121.

Ye, X. and D. J. Randall. 1991. The effect of water pH on swimming performance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 9:15-21.

Zydlewski, G. B., J. R. Johnson, J. Stow, and C. Burger. 2000. Validation of existing screen criteria for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center, Technical Information Leaflet No. AB-00-01, Longview, WA.

All Fish Passage Engineering Publications

Aaserude, R. G. and J. F. Orsborn. August 1985. New concepts in fishladder design. Part 2: Results of laboratory and field research on new concepts in weir and pool fishways. Final Project Report, part 2 of 4 of Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory, University of Washington to Bonneville Power Administration, Project no. 82-14, Portland, Oregon.

Abt, S. R., R. J. Wittler, J.F.Ruff, D. L. LaGrone, M. S. Khattak, J.D.Nelson, N. E. Hinkle, and D. W. Lee. 1988. Development of Riprap Design Criteria by Riprap Testing in Flumes: Phase II Followup Investigations. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

ACOE. 1994. Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington D.C.

ACOE. 2002. SAM Hydraulic Design Package for Channels. Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Vicksburg, MS.

Bates, K. 1991. Pool-and-Chute Fishways. American Fisheries Society Symposium 10:268-277.

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

Barber, M. E. and R. C. Downs. 1996. Investigation of culvert hydraulics related to juvenile fish passage. Research Report of Washington State Transportation Division, University of Washington to Washington State Transportation Commission and Federal Highway Administration, Project T9902, Task 7, Pullman, Washington.

Bathurst, J. C. 1987. Critical Conditions for Bed Material Movement in Steep, Boulder-Bed Streams. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 165:309-318.

Behlke, C. E., D. L. Kane, R. F. McLean, and M. D. Travis. 1993. Economic culvert design using fish swimming energy and power capabilities. Pages 95-100 in K. Bates, editor. Proceeding of a symposium on fish passage and technology. American Fisheries Society, Bioengineering Section, Portland, Oregon.

Belford, D. A. and W. R. Gould. 1989. An evaluation of trout passage through six highway culverts in Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:437-445.

Bell, M. 1991. Fisheries handbook of engineering requirements and biological criteria. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Pacific Division, Portland, Oregon.

Bunt, C. M., C. Katopodis, and R. S. McKinley. 1999. Attraction and passage efficiency of white suckers and smallmouth bass by two Denil fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:793-803.

CalTrans. 2006. California Highway Design Manual State of California Department of Transportation.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

Chin, A. 1998. On the Stability of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. Journal of Geology 106:231-234.

Collins, G. B. and C. H. Elling. 1961. Fishway research at the Fisheries-Engineering Research Laboratory. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. Circular 98.

Collins, G. B., J. R. Gauley, and C. H. Elling. 1962. Ability of salmonids to ascend high fishways. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91:1-7.

Corry, M. L., P. L. Thompson, F. J. Watts, J. S. Jones, and D. L. Richards. 1983. Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels, Hydraulic Engineering Circular 14. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Ead, S. A., C. Katopodis, G. J. Sikora, and N. Rajaratnam. 2004. Flow regimes and structure in pool and weir fishways. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 3(5):379-390.

FHWA. 1979. Restoration of fish habitat in relocated streams, FHWA-IP-79-3. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1989. Design of Riprap Revetment: Hydraulic Engineering Circular. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

FHWA. 2001. Evaluating Scour at Bridges: Fourth Edition, HEC-18. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. & Arlington, VA.

FHWA. 2003. Bottomless Culvert Scour Study: Phase I Laboratory Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 2005. Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, Second Edition, Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 (HDS-5). U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C. & Arlington, VA.

Fripp, J., C. Fischenich, and D. Biedenham. Circa 1998. Low Head Stone Weirs Draft, Technical Note EMSR 4-XX. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Gagen, C.J. and C. Landrum. 2000. Response of warm-water fish to road crossings on Ouachita Mountain streams. Interim report of the Fish and Wildlife Program, Arkansas Tech University to USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Gallegos, H. A., and S. R. Abt. 2001. Design criteria for rounded/angular rock riprap in overtopping flows. Proceedings FEMA Workshop, Oklahoma City, OK.

Gauley, J. R. 1966. Effect of water velocity on passage of salmonids in a transportation channel. Fishery Bulletin 66:59-62.

Grant, G. E., F. J. Swanson, and M. G. Wolman. 1990. Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102(3):340-352.

Gregory, S., J. McEnroe, P. Klingeman, and J. Wyrick. 2004. Fish Passage Through Retrofitted Culverts. Oregon Department of Transportation; Federal Highway Administration, Salem, OR.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, J. Noreika, and T. Castro-Santos. 1997. Effect of water acceleration on downstream migratory behavior and passage of Atlantic salmon smolts and juvenile American shad at surface bypasses. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:118-127.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, T. Castro-Santos, and J.Noreika. 1999. Effect of slope and headpond on passage of American shad and blueback herring through simple denil and deepened Alaska steeppass fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:51-58.

Inter-Fluve Inc. 2009. Culvert Scour Assessment. 0877-1812-SDTDC. US Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, 54 p.

Lang, M. E. 2008. Influence of Fish Passage Retrofits on Culvert Hydraulic Capacity. California Department of Transportation.

Lang, M., M. Love, and W. Trush. 2004. Improving Stream Crossings for Fish Passage - Final Report. Humboldt State University and NOAA Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Laursen, E. M., and M. W. Flick. 1983. Final Report, Predicting Scour at Bridges: Questions Not Fully Answered – Scour at Sill Structures, Report ATTI-83-6. Arizona Department of Transportation.

Limerinos, J. 1970. Determination Of Manning's Coefficient From Measured Bed Roughness, Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1898-B. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington D.C.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

Maynord, S. T. 1994. Streams Above the Line: Channel Morphology and Flood Control. Proceedings of the Corps of Engineers Workshop on Steep Streams. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Seattle, Washington.

MDOT. 2004. Fish Passage Policy & Design Guide. Maine Department of Transportation.

Mesa, M. G. and T. M. Olson. 1993. Prolonged swimming performance of Northern Squawfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:1104-1110.

Mooney, D. M., C. L. Holmquist-Johnson, and S. Broderick. 2007. Rock Ramp Design Guidelines. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

NOAA. 2001. Guidelines for salmonid passage at stream crossings. NOAA Fisheries, NMFS SW Region.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NRCS. 1996. National Engineering Field Handbook, Part 650, Chapter 16 - Streambank and Shoreline Protection U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NRCS. 2000. Design of Rock Weirs, Technical Notes Engineering No. 24. U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Portland, OR.

Powers, P. D. 1997. Culvert Hydraulics Related to Upstream Juvenile Salmonid Passage. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, Lands and Restoration Services Program.

Powers, P. D., and J. F. Orsborn. 1985. Analysis of barriers to upstream fish migration, an investigation of the physical and biological conditions affecting fish passage success at culverts and waterfalls. Washington State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Albroook Hydraulics Lab, Pullman, WA.

Racin, J. A., T. P. Hoover, and C. M. Crossett Avila. 2000. California Bank and Shore Rock Slope Protection Design, Practitioner's Guide and Field Evaluations of Riprap Methods. California Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Sacramento, CA.

Rajaratnam, N., and C. Katopodis. 1990. Hydraulics of culvert fishways III: weir baffle culvert fishways. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 17(4):558-568.

Robinson, K. M., C. E. Rice, and K. C. Kadavy. 1998. Design of Rock Chutes. Transactions of the ASAE 41(3):621-626.

Ruttenberg, D. 2007. An Evaluation of Fish Passage at Rock Vortex Weirs. University of Idaho.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Shoemaker, R. H. 1956. Hydraulics of Box Culverts with Fish-Ladder Baffles. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting, Highway Research Board, Engineering Experiment Station, Report No. 53, Oregon State College, Corvallis, OR.

Slatick, E. 1970. Passage of adult salmon and trout through pipes. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Special Scientific Report-Fisheries 592.

Slatick, E. 1971. Passage of adult salmon and trout through an inclined pipe. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 3:448-455.

Thomas, D. B., S. R. Abt, R. A. Mussetter, and M. D. Harvey. 2000. A Design Procedure for Sizing Step-Pool Structures. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Tilsworth, T. and M. D. Travis. 1987. Fish passage through Poplar Grove Creek. Report Number FHWA-AK-RD-87-15. Final Report of Water Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska-Fairbanks to Research Section Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Toepfer, C. S., W. L. Fisher, and J. A. Haubelt. 1999. Swimming performance of the threatened Leopard Darter in relation to road culverts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:155-161.

USFS. 2005. WinXSPRO, A Channel Cross Section Analyzer, User's Manual, Version 3.0, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-147. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USFS. 2006b. Low-Water Crossings: Geomorphic, Biological, and Engineering Design Considerations. USDA United States Forest Service National Technology and Development Program.

USFWS. 2003. Geomorphic Impacts of Culvert Replacement and Removal: Avoiding Channel Incision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Portland, OR.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Villemonte, J. R. 1947. Submerged weir discharge studies. Engineering News Record:866.

Warren, Jr., M. L. and M. Pardew. 1998. Road crossings as barriers to small-stream fish movement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:637-644.

Young, M. K. 1995. Resident trout and movement: consequences of a new paradigm. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, FHR Currents, Fish Habitat Relationships Technical Bulletin 18.

Young, P. S. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 1996. Environment tolerances and requirements of splittail. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125:664-678.

Rock Sizing / Bed Mobility / Scour

Abt, S. R., R. J. Wittler, J.F.Ruff, D. L. LaGrone, M. S. Khattak, J.D.Nelson, N. E. Hinkle, and D. W. Lee. 1988. Development of Riprap Design Criteria by Riprap Testing in Flumes: Phase II Followup Investigations. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

ACOE. 1994. Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington D.C.

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

Bathurst, J. C. 1987. Critical Conditions for Bed Material Movement in Steep, Boulder-Bed Streams. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 165:309-318.

CalTrans. 2006. California Highway Design Manual State of California Department of Transportation.

Chin, A. 1998. On the Stability of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. Journal of Geology 106:231-234.

FHWA. 1989. Design of Riprap Revetment: Hydraulic Engineering Circular. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

FHWA. 2001. Evaluating Scour at Bridges: Fourth Edition, HEC-18. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. & Arlington, VA.

FHWA. 2003. Bottomless Culvert Scour Study: Phase I Laboratory Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Gallegos, H. A., and S. R. Abt. 2001. Design criteria for rounded/angular rock riprap in overtopping flows. Proceedings FEMA Workshop, Oklahoma City, OK.

Grant, G. E., F. J. Swanson, and M. G. Wolman. 1990. Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102(3):340-352.

Inter-Fluve Inc. 2009. Culvert Scour Assessment. 0877-1812-SDTDC. US Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, 54 p.

Laursen, E. M., and M. W. Flick. 1983. Final Report, Predicting Scour at Bridges: Questions Not Fully Answered – Scour at Sill Structures, Report ATTI-83-6. Arizona Department of Transportation.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

Maynord, S. T. 1994. Streams Above the Line: Channel Morphology and Flood Control. Proceedings of the Corps of Engineers Workshop on Steep Streams. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Seattle, Washington.

Mooney, D. M., C. L. Holmquist-Johnson, and S. Broderick. 2007. Rock Ramp Design Guidelines. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

NRCS. 1996. National Engineering Field Handbook, Part 650, Chapter 16 - Streambank and Shoreline Protection U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NRCS. 2000. Design of Rock Weirs, Technical Notes Engineering No. 24. U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Portland, OR.

Racin, J. A., T. P. Hoover, and C. M. Crossett Avila. 2000. California Bank and Shore Rock Slope Protection Design, Practitioner's Guide and Field Evaluations of Riprap Methods. California Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Sacramento, CA.

Robinson, K. M., C. E. Rice, and K. C. Kadavy. 1998. Design of Rock Chutes. Transactions of the ASAE 41(3):621-626.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

USFS. 2005. WinXSPRO, A Channel Cross Section Analyzer, User's Manual, Version 3.0, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-147. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Channel Roughness & Hydraulics

ACOE. 1994. Hydraulic Design of Flood Control Channels. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington D.C.

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

CalTrans. 2006. California Highway Design Manual State of California Department of Transportation.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

Limerinos, J. 1970. Determination Of Manning's Coefficient From Measured Bed Roughness, Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1898-B. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington D.C.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

Mooney, D. M., C. L. Holmquist-Johnson, and S. Broderick. 2007. Rock Ramp Design Guidelines. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

Robinson, K. M., C. E. Rice, and K. C. Kadavy. 1998. Design of Rock Chutes. Transactions of the ASAE 41(3):621-626.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

USFS. 2005. WinXSPRO, A Channel Cross Section Analyzer, User's Manual, Version 3.0, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-147. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Villemonte, J. R. 1947. Submerged weir discharge studies. Engineering News Record:866.

Hydraulic Modeling Methods

Barber, M. E. and R. C. Downs. 1996. Investigation of culvert hydraulics related to juvenile fish passage. Research Report of Washington State Transportation Division, University of Washington to Washington State Transportation Commission and Federal Highway Administration, Project T9902, Task 7, Pullman, Washington.

Behlke, C. E., D. L. Kane, R. F. McLean, and M. D. Travis. 1993. Economic culvert design using fish swimming energy and power capabilities. Pages 95-100 in K. Bates, editor. Proceeding of a symposium on fish passage and technology. American Fisheries Society, Bioengineering Section, Portland, Oregon.

Corry, M. L., P. L. Thompson, F. J. Watts, J. S. Jones, and D. L. Richards. 1983. Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels, Hydraulic Engineering Circular 14. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

FHWA. 2005. Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, Second Edition, Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 (HDS-5). U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C. & Arlington, VA.

Lang, M. E. 2008. Influence of Fish Passage Retrofits on Culvert Hydraulic Capacity. California Department of Transportation.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

USFS. 2005. WinXSPRO, A Channel Cross Section Analyzer, User's Manual, Version 3.0, Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-147. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Culverts Crossings

Barber, M. E. and R. C. Downs. 1996. Investigation of culvert hydraulics related to juvenile fish passage. Research Report of Washington State Transportation Division, University of Washington to Washington State Transportation Commission and Federal Highway Administration, Project T9902, Task 7, Pullman, Washington.

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

Behlke, C. E., D. L. Kane, R. F. McLean, and M. D. Travis. 1993. Economic culvert design using fish swimming energy and power capabilities. Pages 95-100 in K. Bates, editor. Proceeding of a symposium on fish passage and technology. American Fisheries Society, Bioengineering Section, Portland, Oregon.

Belford, D. A. and W. R. Gould. 1989. An evaluation of trout passage through six highway culverts in Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:437-445.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

Corry, M. L., P. L. Thompson, F. J. Watts, J. S. Jones, and D. L. Richards. 1983. Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for Culverts and Channels, Hydraulic Engineering Circular 14. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

FHWA. 2003. Bottomless Culvert Scour Study: Phase I Laboratory Report. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 2005. Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts, Second Edition, Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 (HDS-5). U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington D.C. & Arlington, VA.

Gagen, C.J. and C. Landrum. 2000. Response of warm-water fish to road crossings on Ouachita Mountain streams. Interim report of the Fish and Wildlife Program, Arkansas Tech University to USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Gregory, S., J. McEnroe, P. Klingeman, and J. Wyrick. 2004. Fish Passage Through Retrofitted Culverts. Oregon Department of Transportation; Federal Highway Administration, Salem, OR.

Inter-Fluve Inc. 2009. Culvert Scour Assessment. 0877-1812-SDTDC. US Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, 54 p.

Lang, M. E. 2008. Influence of Fish Passage Retrofits on Culvert Hydraulic Capacity. California Department of Transportation.

Lang, M., M. Love, and W. Trush. 2004. Improving Stream Crossings for Fish Passage - Final Report. Humboldt State University and NOAA Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

MDOT. 2004. Fish Passage Policy & Design Guide. Maine Department of Transportation.

Powers, P. D. 1997. Culvert Hydraulics Related to Upstream Juvenile Salmonid Passage. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, Lands and Restoration Services Program.

Powers, P. D., and J. F. Orsborn. 1985. Analysis of barriers to upstream fish migration, an investigation of the physical and biological conditions affecting fish passage success at culverts and waterfalls. Washington State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Albroook Hydraulics Lab, Pullman, WA.

Slatick, E. 1970. Passage of adult salmon and trout through pipes. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Special Scientific Report-Fisheries 592.

Slatick, E. 1971. Passage of adult salmon and trout through an inclined pipe. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 3:448-455.

Tilsworth, T. and M. D. Travis. 1987. Fish passage through Poplar Grove Creek. Report Number FHWA-AK-RD-87-15. Final Report of Water Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska-Fairbanks to Research Section Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Toepfer, C. S., W. L. Fisher, and J. A. Haubelt. 1999. Swimming performance of the threatened Leopard Darter in relation to road culverts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:155-161.

USFWS. 2003. Geomorphic Impacts of Culvert Replacement and Removal: Avoiding Channel Incision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Portland, OR.

Warren, Jr., M. L. and M. Pardew. 1998. Road crossings as barriers to small-stream fish movement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:637-644.

Culvert Baffles

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

Ead, S. A., C. Katopodis, G. J. Sikora, and N. Rajaratnam. 2004. Flow regimes and structure in pool and weir fishways. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 3(5):379-390.

Gregory, S., J. McEnroe, P. Klingeman, and J. Wyrick. 2004. Fish Passage Through Retrofitted Culverts. Oregon Department of Transportation; Federal Highway Administration, Salem, OR.

Lang, M. E. 2008. Influence of Fish Passage Retrofits on Culvert Hydraulic Capacity. California Department of Transportation.

Lang, M., M. Love, and W. Trush. 2004. Improving Stream Crossings for Fish Passage - Final Report. Humboldt State University and NOAA Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

NOAA. 2001. Guidelines for salmonid passage at stream crossings. NOAA Fisheries, NMFS SW Region.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Rajaratnam, N., and C. Katopodis. 1990. Hydraulics of culvert fishways III: weir baffle culvert fishways. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 17(4):558-568.

Shoemaker, R. H. 1956. Hydraulics of Box Culverts with Fish-Ladder Baffles. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting, Highway Research Board, Engineering Experiment Station, Report No. 53, Oregon State College, Corvallis, OR.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Villemonte, J. R. 1947. Submerged weir discharge studies. Engineering News Record:866.

Technical Fishways / Ladders

Bates, K. 1991. Pool-and-Chute Fishways. American Fisheries Society Symposium 10:268-277.

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

Bell, M. 1991. Fisheries handbook of engineering requirements and biological criteria. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Pacific Division, Portland, Oregon.

Bunt, C. M., C. Katopodis, and R. S. McKinley. 1999. Attraction and passage efficiency of white suckers and smallmouth bass by two Denil fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:793-803.

Collins, G. B. and C. H. Elling. 1961. Fishway research at the Fisheries-Engineering Research Laboratory. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. Circular 98.

Collins, G. B., J. R. Gauley, and C. H. Elling. 1962. Ability of salmonids to ascend high fishways. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91:1-7.

Ead, S. A., C. Katopodis, G. J. Sikora, and N. Rajaratnam. 2004. Flow regimes and structure in pool and weir fishways. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 3(5):379-390.

Gauley, J. R. 1966. Effect of water velocity on passage of salmonids in a transportation channel. Fishery Bulletin 66:59-62.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, J. Noreika, and T. Castro-Santos. 1997. Effect of water acceleration on downstream migratory behavior and passage of Atlantic salmon smolts and juvenile American shad at surface bypasses. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:118-127.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, T. Castro-Santos, and J.Noreika. 1999. Effect of slope and headpond on passage of American shad and blueback herring through simple denil and deepened Alaska steeppass fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:51-58.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

Mesa, M. G. and T. M. Olson. 1993. Prolonged swimming performance of Northern Squawfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:1104-1110.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Rajaratnam, N., and C. Katopodis. 1990. Hydraulics of culvert fishways III: weir baffle culvert fishways. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 17(4):558-568.

Villemonte, J. R. 1947. Submerged weir discharge studies. Engineering News Record:866.

Stream Simulation

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

FHWA. 1979. Restoration of fish habitat in relocated streams, FHWA-IP-79-3. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

Inter-Fluve Inc. 2009. Culvert Scour Assessment. 0877-1812-SDTDC. US Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, 54 p.

Lang, M., M. Love, and W. Trush. 2004. Improving Stream Crossings for Fish Passage - Final Report. Humboldt State University and NOAA Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

NOAA. 2001. Guidelines for salmonid passage at stream crossings. NOAA Fisheries, NMFS SW Region.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

USFS. 2006b. Low-Water Crossings: Geomorphic, Biological, and Engineering Design Considerations. USDA United States Forest Service National Technology and Development Program.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Roughened Channels / Nature-Like Fishways

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

Mooney, D. M., C. L. Holmquist-Johnson, and S. Broderick. 2007. Rock Ramp Design Guidelines. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

NRCS. 2000. Design of Rock Weirs, Technical Notes Engineering No. 24. U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Portland, OR.

Robinson, K. M., C. E. Rice, and K. C. Kadavy. 1998. Design of Rock Chutes. Transactions of the ASAE 41(3):621-626.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Grade Controlling Drop Structures

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

Fripp, J., C. Fischenich, and D. Biedenham. Circa 1998. Low Head Stone Weirs Draft, Technical Note EMSR 4-XX. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

Mooney, D. M., C. L. Holmquist-Johnson, and S. Broderick. 2007. Rock Ramp Design Guidelines. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO.

NOAA. 2001. Guidelines for salmonid passage at stream crossings. NOAA Fisheries, NMFS SW Region.

NRCS. 2000. Design of Rock Weirs, Technical Notes Engineering No. 24. U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Portland, OR.

Powers, P. D., and J. F. Orsborn. 1985. Analysis of barriers to upstream fish migration, an investigation of the physical and biological conditions affecting fish passage success at culverts and waterfalls. Washington State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Albroook Hydraulics Lab, Pullman, WA.

Ruttenberg, D. 2007. An Evaluation of Fish Passage at Rock Vortex Weirs. University of Idaho.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Thomas, D. B., S. R. Abt, R. A. Mussetter, and M. D. Harvey. 2000. A Design Procedure for Sizing Step-Pool Structures. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

USFWS. 2003. Geomorphic Impacts of Culvert Replacement and Removal: Avoiding Channel Incision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Portland, OR.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Villemonte, J. R. 1947. Submerged weir discharge studies. Engineering News Record:866.

Fisheries Ecology

Bell, M. 1991. Fisheries handbook of engineering requirements and biological criteria. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Pacific Division, Portland, Oregon.

FHWA. 1979. Restoration of fish habitat in relocated streams, FHWA-IP-79-3. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Gagen, C.J. and C. Landrum. 2000. Response of warm-water fish to road crossings on Ouachita Mountain streams. Interim report of the Fish and Wildlife Program, Arkansas Tech University to USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Gerking, S. D. 1953. Evidence for the concepts of home range and territory in stream fishes. Ecology 34:347-365.

Kahler, T. H., P. Roni, and T. P. Quinn. 2001. Summer movement and growth of juvenile anadromous salmonids in small western Washington streams. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58:1947-1956.

Kozel, S. J., W. A. Hubert, and M. G. Parsons. 1989. Habitat features and trout abundance relative to gradient in some Wyoming streams. Northwest Science 63:175-181.

Lang, M., M. Love, and W. Trush. 2004. Improving Stream Crossings for Fish Passage - Final Report. Humboldt State University and NOAA Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Oseid, D. and L. L. Smith, Jr. 1972. Swimming endurance and resistance to copper and malathion of Bluegills treated by long-term exposure to sublethal levels of hydrogen sulfide. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 101:620-625.

Pauley, G. B., K. Oshima, K. L. Bowers, and G. L. Thomas. 1989. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Sea-run cutthroat trout. Biological Report 82(11.86) TR EL-82-4. Report of Washington Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, University of Washington to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center, Washington D.C.

Smithson, E. B. and C. E. Johnston. 1999. Movement patterns of stream fishes in a Ouachita Highlands stream: an examination of the restricted movement paradigm. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:847-853.

Vincent, R. E. 1960. Some influences of domestication upon three stocks of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 89:35-52.

Ye, X. and D. J. Randall. 1991. The effect of water pH on swimming performance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 9:15-21.

Young, M. K. 1995. Resident trout and movement: consequences of a new paradigm. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, FHR Currents, Fish Habitat Relationships Technical Bulletin 18.

Young, P. S. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 1996. Environment tolerances and requirements of splittail. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125:664-678.

Fish Locomotion

Aaserude, R. G. and J. F. Orsborn. August 1985. New concepts in fishladder design. Part 2: Results of laboratory and field research on new concepts in weir and pool fishways. Final Project Report, part 2 of 4 of Albrook Hydraulics Laboratory, University of Washington to Bonneville Power Administration, Project no. 82-14, Portland, Oregon.

Adams, S. R., G. L. Adams, and G. R. Parsons. 2003. Critical swimming speed and behavior of juvenile shovelnose sturgeon and pallid sturgeon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:392-397.

Adams, S. R., G. R. Parsons, J. J. Hoover, and K. J. Killgore. 1997. Note: Observations of swimming ability in shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12:631-633.

Adams, S. R., J. J. Hoover, and K. J. Killgore. 1999. Swimming endurance of juvenile pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus. Copeia 3:802-807.

Beamish, F. W. H. 1974. Swimming performance of adult sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in relation to weight and temperature. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 103:355-358.

Behlke, C. E., D. L. Kane, R. F. McLean, and M. D. Travis. 1993. Economic culvert design using fish swimming energy and power capabilities. Pages 95-100 in K. Bates, editor. Proceeding of a symposium on fish passage and technology. American Fisheries Society, Bioengineering Section, Portland, Oregon.

Belford, D. A. and W. R. Gould. 1989. An evaluation of trout passage through six highway culverts in Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:437-445.

Bell, M. 1991. Fisheries handbook of engineering requirements and biological criteria. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Pacific Division, Portland, Oregon.

Bergstedt, R. A., D. V. Rottiers, and N. R. Foster. 1981. Laboratory determination of maximum swimming speed of migrating sea lampreys: A feasibility study. Administrative Report No. 81-3. Report of U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Berry, Jr., C. R. and R. Pimentel. 1985. Swimming performances of three rare Colorado river fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114:397-402.

Bunt, C. M., C. Katopodis, and R. S. McKinley. 1999. Attraction and passage efficiency of white suckers and smallmouth bass by two Denil fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:793-803.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

Collins, G. B., J. R. Gauley, and C. H. Elling. 1962. Ability of salmonids to ascend high fishways. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 91:1-7.

Dahlberg, M. L., D. L. Shumway, and P. Doudoroff. 1968. Influence of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide on swimming performance of largemouth bass and coho salmon. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 25:49-70.

Davis, G. E., J. Foster, C. E. Warren, and P. Doudorff. 1963. The influence of oxygen concentration on the swimming performance of juvenile Pacific salmon at various temperatures. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 92:111-124.

Dorn, P., L. Johnson, and C. Darby. 1979. The swimming performance of nine species of common California inshore fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 108:366-372.

Farlinger, S. and F. W. H. Beamish. 1977. Effects of time and velocity increments on the critical swimming speed of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106:436-439.

Flagg, T. A., E. F. Prentice, and L. S. Smith. 1983. Swimming stamina and survival following direct seawater entry during parr-smolt transformation of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Aquaculture 32:383-396.

Gagen, C.J. and C. Landrum. 2000. Response of warm-water fish to road crossings on Ouachita Mountain streams. Interim report of the Fish and Wildlife Program, Arkansas Tech University to USDA Forest Service, Ouachita National Forest, Hot Springs, Arkansas.

Gauley, J. R. 1966. Effect of water velocity on passage of salmonids in a transportation channel. Fishery Bulletin 66:59-62.

Hanson, L.H. 1980. 1980 study to determine the burst swimming speed of spawning-run sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). Research Completion Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hammond Bay Biological Station, Millersberg, Michigan.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, J. Noreika, and T. Castro-Santos. 1997. Effect of water acceleration on downstream migratory behavior and passage of Atlantic salmon smolts and juvenile American shad at surface bypasses. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:118-127.

Haro, A., M. Odeh, T. Castro-Santos, and J.Noreika. 1999. Effect of slope and headpond on passage of American shad and blueback herring through simple denil and deepened Alaska steeppass fishways. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19:51-58.

Haro, A., T. Castro-Santos, J. Noreika. and M. Odeh. 2004. Swimming performance of upstream migrating fishes in open-channel flow: a new approach to predicting passage through velocity barriers. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:1590-1601.

Hinch, S. G. and J. Bratty. 2000. Effects of swim speed and activity pattern on success of adult sockeye salmon migration through an area of difficult passage. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129:598-606.

Kahler, T. H., P. Roni, and T. P. Quinn. 2001. Summer movement and growth of juvenile anadromous salmonids in small western Washington streams. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 58:1947-1956.

Katopodis, C., E. M. Koon, and L. Hanson. 1994. Sea lamprey barriers: new concepts and research needs. Report of an alternative control research workshop held in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 11-13 February, 1994. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Kondratieff, M. C. and C. A. Myrick. 2006. How high can brook trout jump? A laboratory evaluation of brook trout jumping performance. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135:361-370.

Lang, M., M. Love, and W. Trush. 2004. Improving Stream Crossings for Fish Passage - Final Report. Humboldt State University and NOAA Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service.

Layher, W. G. Unpublished Report, 1993. Determining swimming speeds for darters of the genera Etheostoma and two cyprinid fishes. Final Report of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to the Ouchita National Forest U.S.D.A. Forest Service and the University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished Report Swimming speeds of the central stoneroller. U.S. Geological Survey. University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. A comparison of swimming performance of orangebelly darters collected by kick-seining and backpack electrofishing. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Critical current speeds of several darter species of the genus Etheostoma. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Swimming performance of juvenile bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Swimming speed performance of the bigeye shiner from the Ouachita River drainage. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report. Swimming speed performance of the longear sunfish. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Layher, W. G. and A. O. Ralston. Unpublished report, 1997. Differences between electrofished and seined golden shiners as related to swimming performance. U.S. Geological Survey. University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Lenzi, M. A., A. Marion, F. Comiti, and R. Gaudio. 2002. Local Scouring in low and high gradient streams at bed sills. Journal of Hydraulic Research 40(2002):731-739.

MacLeod, J. C. and L. L. Smith, Jr. 1966. Effect of pulpwood fiber on oxygen consumption and swimming endurance of the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 95:71-84.

Meng, L. 1993. Sustainable swimming speeds of striped bass larvae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:702-708.

Mesa, M. G. and T. M. Olson. 1993. Prolonged swimming performance of Northern Squawfish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:1104-1110.

Mesa, M. G., J. M. Bayer, and J. G. Seelye. 2003. Swimming performance and physiological responses to exhaustive exercise in radio-tagged and untagged Pacific lampreys. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132:483-492.

Mesa, M. G., L. K. Weiland, and G. B. Zydlewski. 2004. Critical swimming speeds of wild bull trout. Northwest Science 78:59-65.

Moursund, R. A., D. D. Dauble, and M. D. Bleich. 2000. Effects of John Day Dam bypass screens and project operations of the behavior and survival of juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata). Final Report of Pacific Northwest Laboratory to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland, Oregon.

Moursund, R.A., M. D. Bleich, K. D. Ham, R.P. Mueller. 2003. Evaluation of the effects of extended length submersible bar screens on migrating juvenile Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentate) at John Day Dam in 2002. PNNL-14160. Final Report of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, District, Portland, Oregon.

Muir, B. S., G. J. Nelson, and K. W. Bridges. 1965. A method for measuring swimming speed in oxygen consumption studies on the aholehole Kuhlia sandvicensis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94:378-382.

Myrick, C. A. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 2000. Swimming performances of four California stream fishes: temperature effects. Environmental Biology of Fishes 58:289-295.

NRCS. 1990. Fish Passage and Screening Design, Technical Supplement 14N, Part 654, National Engineering Handbook U.S. Department Of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.

Oseid, D. and L. L. Smith, Jr. 1972. Swimming endurance and resistance to copper and malathion of Bluegills treated by long-term exposure to sublethal levels of hydrogen sulfide. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 101:620-625.

Osmer Ralston, A. and W. G. Layher. Unpublished report. An inexpensive ichthyonatometer for assessing swimming performance of small fishes. U.S. Geological Survey, University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Pauley, G. B., K. Oshima, K. L. Bowers, and G. L. Thomas. 1989. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Sea-run cutthroat trout. Biological Report 82(11.86) TR EL-82-4. Report of Washington Cooperative Fishery Research Unit, University of Washington to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Research Center, Washington D.C.

Paulik, G. J. and A. C. DeLacy. 1957. Swimming abilities of upstream migrant silver salmon, sockeye salmon and steelhead at several water velocities. School of Fisheries, Technical Report 44, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Paulik, G. J., A. C. DeLacy, and E. F. Stacy. 1957. The effect of rest on the swimming performance of fatigued adult silver salmon. School of Fisheries, Technical Report 31, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Peake, S. 2004. An evaluation of the use of critical swimming speed for determination of culvert water velocity criteria for smallmouth bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133:1472-1479.

Peake, S., R. S. McKinley, D. A. Scruton, and R. Moccia. 1997c. Influence of transmitter attachment procedures on swimming performance of wild and hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:707-714.

Powers, P. D. 1997. Culvert Hydraulics Related to Upstream Juvenile Salmonid Passage. Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, Lands and Restoration Services Program.

Powers, P. D., and J. F. Orsborn. 1985. Analysis of barriers to upstream fish migration, an investigation of the physical and biological conditions affecting fish passage success at culverts and waterfalls. Washington State University, Department of Civil Engineering, Albroook Hydraulics Lab, Pullman, WA.

Slatick, E. 1970. Passage of adult salmon and trout through pipes. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Special Scientific Report-Fisheries 592.

Slatick, E. 1971. Passage of adult salmon and trout through an inclined pipe. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 3:448-455.

Smithson, E. B. and C. E. Johnston. 1999. Movement patterns of stream fishes in a Ouachita Highlands stream: an examination of the restricted movement paradigm. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:847-853.

Strange, R. J. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 1992. Reduced swimming performance of striped bass after confinement stress. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121:206-210.

Thomas, A. E. and M. J. Donahoo. 1977. Differences in swimming performance among strains of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 34:304-307.

Tilsworth, T. and M. D. Travis. 1987. Fish passage through Poplar Grove Creek. Report Number FHWA-AK-RD-87-15. Final Report of Water Research Center, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska-Fairbanks to Research Section Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Toepfer, C. S., W. L. Fisher, and J. A. Haubelt. 1999. Swimming performance of the threatened Leopard Darter in relation to road culverts. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:155-161.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Ward, D. L., O. E. Maughan, S. A. Bonar, and W. J. Matter. 2002. Effects of temperature, fish length, and exercise on swimming performance of age-0 flannelmouth sucker. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:492-497.

Warren, Jr., M. L. and M. Pardew. 1998. Road crossings as barriers to small-stream fish movement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:637-644.

Weaver, C. R. 1965. Observations on the swimming ability of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 94:382-385.

Weaver, C. R. 1963. Influence of water velocity upon orientation and performance of adult migrating salmonids. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Bulletin 63(1):97-121.

Ye, X. and D. J. Randall. 1991. The effect of water pH on swimming performance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 9:15-21.

Young, P. S. and J. J. Cech, Jr. 1996. Environment tolerances and requirements of splittail. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125:664-678.

Zydlewski, G. B., J. R. Johnson, J. Stow, and C. Burger. 2000. Validation of existing screen criteria for juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Abernathy Fish Technology Center, Technical Information Leaflet No. AB-00-01, Longview, WA.

All Fluvial Geomorphology Publications

Bathurst, J. C. 1987. Critical Conditions for Bed Material Movement in Steep, Boulder-Bed Streams. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 165:309-318.

Bowman, D. 1977. Stepped-bed morphology in arid gravelly channels. Geologic Society of America Bulletin 88:291-298.

Chin, A. 1998. On the Stability of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. Journal of Geology 106:231-234.

Chin, A. 2002. The Periodic Nature of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. American Journal of Science 302:144-167.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

FISRWG. 2001. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG).

Grant, G. E., F. J. Swanson, and M. G. Wolman. 1990. Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102(3):340-352.

Harrelson, C. C., C. L. Rawlins, and J. P. Potyondy. 1994. Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique. United States Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Inter-Fluve Inc. 2009. Culvert Scour Assessment. 0877-1812-SDTDC. US Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, 54 p.

Montgomery, D. R., and J. M. Buffington. 1997. Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109:596-611.

Ruttenberg, D. 2007. An Evaluation of Fish Passage at Rock Vortex Weirs. University of Idaho.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Thomas, D. B., S. R. Abt, R. A. Mussetter, and M. D. Harvey. 2000. A Design Procedure for Sizing Step-Pool Structures. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

USFWS. 2003. Geomorphic Impacts of Culvert Replacement and Removal: Avoiding Channel Incision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Portland, OR.

Channel Morphology

Bathurst, J. C. 1987. Critical Conditions for Bed Material Movement in Steep, Boulder-Bed Streams. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication 165:309-318.

Bowman, D. 1977. Stepped-bed morphology in arid gravelly channels. Geologic Society of America Bulletin 88:291-298.

Chin, A. 1998. On the Stability of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. Journal of Geology 106:231-234.

Chin, A. 2002. The Periodic Nature of Step-Pool Mountain Streams. American Journal of Science 302:144-167.

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

FISRWG. 2001. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG).

Grant, G. E., F. J. Swanson, and M. G. Wolman. 1990. Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin 102(3):340-352.

Inter-Fluve Inc. 2009. Culvert Scour Assessment. 0877-1812-SDTDC. US Forest Service, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, San Dimas, CA, 54 p.

Montgomery, D. R., and J. M. Buffington. 1997. Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109:596-611.

Ruttenberg, D. 2007. An Evaluation of Fish Passage at Rock Vortex Weirs. University of Idaho.

Saldi-Caromile, K., K. Bates, P. Skidmore, J. Barenti, and D. Pineo. 2004. Stream Habitat Restoration Guidelines: Final Draft. Co-published by the Washington Departments of Fish and Wildlife and Ecology and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Thomas, D. B., S. R. Abt, R. A. Mussetter, and M. D. Harvey. 2000. A Design Procedure for Sizing Step-Pool Structures. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

USFWS. 2003. Geomorphic Impacts of Culvert Replacement and Removal: Avoiding Channel Incision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Portland, OR.

Field Methods

FHWA. 1990. Highways in the River Environment Participant Notebook. Federal Highway Administration, Fort Collins, CO.

Harrelson, C. C., C. L. Rawlins, and J. P. Potyondy. 1994. Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique. United States Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

USFWS. 2003. Geomorphic Impacts of Culvert Replacement and Removal: Avoiding Channel Incision. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Oregon Fish and Wildlife Office, Portland, OR.

Fish Passage Regulatory & Management Guidelines

Bates, K., B. Barnard, B. Heiner, J. P. Klavas, and P. D. Powers. 2003. Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

CDFG. 2002. Culvert criteria for fish passage. Appendix A in California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual 3rd edition. California Department of Fish and Game.

Love, M. and K. Bates. 2009. Part XII: Fish Passage Design and Implementation. California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 188 pages.

MDOT. 2004. Fish Passage Policy & Design Guide. Maine Department of Transportation.

NOAA. 2001. Guidelines for salmonid passage at stream crossings. NOAA Fisheries, NMFS SW Region.

VDFW. 2007. Vermont Guidelines for the Design of Stream/Road Crossings for Passage of Aquatic Organisms. Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2003. Fish Passage Technical Assistance Design of Road Crossings for Fish Passage.

Fish Passage Assessment

Clarkin, K., A. Connor, et al. (2005). National Inventory and Assessment Procedure For Identifying Barriers to Aquatic Organism Passage at Road-Stream Crossings. San Dimas, California, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Technology and Development Program.

Taylor, R and M. Love. 2003. Fish Passage Evaluation at Stream Crossings. Part IX of California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual. California Dept. of Fish and Game. 100 pages.

 


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